The 3D Technology Evolution
Your Go-To Provider for a Broad Range of Advanced and Standard 3D Package Solutions
The market for portable and mobile data access devices is growing rapidly, driving the demand for both increased functional convergence as well as increased packaging complexity and sophistication. Accelerated by the need for higher levels of integration, improved electrical performance, or reduction of timing delays, the requirements for shorter vertical interconnects is forcing a shift in packaging technology from 2D packaging to more advanced 2.5D and 3D package designs. To meet this demand, various types of stacking integration technologies are being used to combine multiple chips with diverse functionality into increasingly smaller and smaller sizes.
STATS ChipPAC has been actively pushing the boundaries of traditional packaging paradigms by pioneering a number of enabling integration technologies in wafer level packaging, flip chip interconnect and Through Silicon Via (TSV) to develop differentiated solutions that position its customers for success in the markets they serve.
3D integration is proceeding on three fronts: package level
, wafer level
and silicon level
- Package Level Integration
Packages are stacked and interconnected using conventional wire bonds or flip chip processes to create traditional stacked die and stacked package structures, including:
- Stacked die (SD) packages which typically consist of bare die stacked and interconnected using wire bond and flip chip connections in one standard package. Configurations include FBGA-SD, FLGA-SD, PBGA-SD, QFP-SD and TSOP-SD.
- Package-on-Package (PoP) packages which typically consist of stacking fully tested memory and logic packages eliminating known good die (KGD) issues and providing flexibility in mixing and matching IC technologies. Flip chip PoP options include Bare Die PoP, Molded Laser PoP and an exposed die Molded Laser PoP configuration (PoP-MLP-ED).
- Package-in-Package (PiP) packages which typically stack packaged chips and bare chips into one JEDEC standard FBGA. A pre-tested Internal Stacking Module (ISM) Land Grid Array (LGA) and a BGA or a Known/Probed Good Die (KGD) are stacked and interconnected with wire bonding, then molded into a CSP that is indistinguishable from a conventional FBGA package.
- Wafer Level Integration
3D wafer level packaging (WLP) uses redistribution layers (RDL) and bumping processes to form interconnects. Wafer level packaging technologies include innovative Fan-in (FIWLP) and Fan-out (FOWLP) options, including:
- embedded Wafer Level BGA (eWLB) - a versatile Fan-Out embedded Wafer Level BGA platform. eWLB's flexible reconstitution manufacturing process can reduce substrate complexity and costs while achieving high performance, smaller package sizes with very dense interconnection in a range of reliable, low-warpage 2D, 2.5D and 3D solutions. STATS ChipPAC's 3D eWLB-SiP and eWLB-PoP solutions include embedded multiple passives and active components, face-to-back or face-to face options, and single-sided, 1.5-sided and double-sided ultra-thin PoP configurations. For applications requiring full 3D integration, STATS ChipPAC's face-to-face (marsupial) eWLB PoP configuration provides a direct vertical interconnection between an application processor die and a memory die through the eWLB mold layer to enable a high bandwidth, very fine pitch structure with performance that parallels TSV technology.
- encapsulated WLCSP (eWLCSP™) - an innovative FIWLP package which employs the Fan-out process, also known as the FlexLine™ method, to create this innovative and robust encapsulated WLCSP package.
- WLCSP - standard Wafer Level CSP packages. The development of process technologies such as low cure temperature polymers and the use of copper for under bump metallization (UBM) and RDL are enabling higher densities and increased WLCSP package reliability.
- Silicon (Si) Level Integration
In a true 3D IC design, the goal is to attach one chip to another with nothing in between (no interposer or substrate). Currently, "near 3D" integration or 2.5D integration, as it is commonly known, is achieved by connecting die within a package using through silicon vias (TSVs) in a thin passive interposer layer. Communication between the die takes place via circuitry fabricated on the interposer. FOWLP processes can also yield an innovative transitional technology known as 2.5D eWLB in which a high density interconnection is achieved using the thin film fan-out structure. STATS ChipPAC's silicon-level integration portfolio includes:
- 2.5D / Extended eWLB - STATS ChipPAC's eWLB-based interposers enable very dense interconnection with more effective heat dissipation and improved processing speed in a proven, low-warpage packaging structure. A 3D eWLB interconnection (including Si partitioning) is accomplished by means of a unique face-to-face bonding approach which eliminates the need for more expensive TSV interconnections while achieving a high bandwidth 3D integration. The simplified materials supply chain and lower overall cost available with an eWLB-based interposer provide a strong technology platform and path for customers to transition their devices to more advanced 2.5D and 3D packages.
- TSV - One of the first OSATs to establish MEOL and BEOL capabilities, STATS ChipPAC is playing an important role in this emerging interconnect technology, and has been focused on developing high volume manufacturing capabilities at cost points that make TSV a commercially viable solution. STATS ChipPAC has also been involved in a number of collaborative efforts with customers and leading foundries to develop an effective business model for integrated 3D packaging solutions.